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CANNELLI, Alessandra


October 29th, h. 15.00

See LOPRIORE, Lucilla



October 28th h. 16.15

The dynamics of question / answer moves in ELF spoken discourse in cross-cultural migration domains

Thomas W. Christiansen, University of Salento


In this paper we will analyze question and answer moves in a corpus of approximately 8 interviews taken from transcripts published on the site Storie migranti ( Our focus will be the different ways questions are employed and formulated to elicit ideational information (see Halliday 2004) and also the way that answers to these same questions are formulated. A major point of interest within cross-cultural migrant domains and in particular in the context of asylum seekers using ELF is how the delicate balance of the demands of questioner and answerer are negotiated and satisfied, or not as the case may be (see Guido 2008). In addition to purely lingua-structural concerns, we also consider pragmatic considerations within the specific theoretical contexts of relevance (Sperber and Wilson 1987) and conversation implicatures (Grice 1974).

With an in depth analysis of individual cases, we will seek to identify the instances where answers satisfactorily provide the information elicited by the question in view of being able to describe successful strategies both from the perspective of questioner and answerer within the specific context of spoken interaction between ELF users in cross-cultural migration domains.

Keywords: Question/Answer moves in ELF; cross-cultural migration domains; directive and representative illocutionary acts; Relevance; conversational implicatures; language games.


Grice, H.P. 1975. Logic and Conversation. In Cole, Peter / Morgan, Jerry L. (eds) Syntax and Semantics Vol 3 (Speech Acts). New York, NY: Academic Press, pp 41-58.

Guido, M.G. 2008. English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains. Bern: Peter Lang.

Halliday, M.A.K. 2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd edition revised by Christian M.I.M. Matthiessen). London: Edward Arnold.

Searle, J.R. 1975. Indirect speech acts. In Cole, Peter / Morgan, Jerry L. (eds) Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York, NY: Academic Press, 59-82.

Sperber, D. / Wilson, D. 1986. Relevance, Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.


Bionote: Thomas Christiansen is an Associate Professor in English Language and Translation at the Università del Salento (Lecce, Italy) and Director of the University Language Centre. He has taught in various positions at various universities in Apulia (Italy), the UK, and Poland. He completed his PhD in textual linguistics at Salford (UK). He has researched and published on various areas of linguistics including systemic linguistics and functional grammar, varieties of English, ELF, teaching English, language testing, and analysis of different corpora, including spoken discourse. He has also worked as an expert consultant for Cambridge Assessment English in various capacities for many years.


FIASCO, Valeria

October 29th, h. 15.00

See LOPRIORE, Lucilla


GUIDO, Maria Grazia

October 28th, h. 15.45

Nigerian migrants’ ELF-mediated online interactions at the outset of the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown: developing new economy processes of relexicalization and decategorialization

Maria Grazia Guido, University of Salento


This paper explores the ELF-mediated online interactions developed by a group of Nigerian migrants living in Southern Italy during the lockdown period in the early months of 2020, due to the Covid-19 pandemic emergency. Case-study data illustrate how such interactions, though propositionally conveyed in writing, actually retain the analogical immediacy of spoken discourse through which migrants express their anguish at feeling caught in a situation of distress and even more marginalization. The paper investigates how the migrants’ linguaculturally-marked use of syllabic notations, acronyms, emojis, and phrasal verbs trigger processes of semantic relexicalization and morphological decategorialization that challenge in many ways what so far has been considered as the natural course in language evolution governed and bound by the ‘economy principle’.

Bionote: Maria Grazia Guido is Full Professor of English Linguistics and Translation at the University of Salento (Italy), where she is the Director of the Department of Humanities. She holds a PhD in English Applied Linguistics at the University of London Institute of Education. Her research interests are in cognitive-functional linguistics applied to ELF in intercultural communication, cognitive stylistics and specialized discourse analysis. Her monographs include: English as a Lingua Franca in Migrants’ Trauma Narratives (Palgrave Macmillan), English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains (Peter Lang), Mediating Cultures (LED), The Acting Translator and The Acting Interpreter (Legas).


IAIA, Pietro Luigi

October 28th, h. 16.45

ELF potential in international subtitling

Pietro Luigi Iaia, University of Salento


This paper reports on a case study implemented at the University of Salento and at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, which concerns the use of subtitles as a means to develop intercultural communication. In particular, this study examines the intralingual and interlingual translations of the reportage Fortress Italia: Capsized in Lampedusa, about migrants’ arrivals in Italy and Europe. Although the video is of interest to international viewers, due to its theme and the anti-ideological discursive frame informing its production, the lack of proper subtitling may undermine the accessibility of the news report to non-native English speakers. On the one hand, subtitles do not appear when Standard English is used, so the comprehension of those utterances depends on the receivers’ listening skills; on the other hand, the official retextualizations are characterized by formal register and editorial additions that may affect their readability. For these reasons, an alternative rendering was commissioned to a number of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Foreign Languages and Literatures and Translation and Interpreting from the University of Salento and the Autonomous University of Barcelona, in order to enquire into new areas of adoption of English as an International Language and as a Lingua Franca. The analysis of the selected corpus of extracts will pinpoint the strategies of lexical and structural simplification and condensation, along with the inclusion of specific verb tenses and aspects, which are expected to enhance the implied recipients’ understanding of the video’s message. Since these features of English are actively chosen, by the subjects that were involved in this research, so as to foster cross-cultural communication between the authors and viewers of Fortress Italia, this study contends that specific lingua-franca uses can be activated at the time of subtitling multimodal texts. Hence, the notion of ‘audiovisual mediation’ will be introduced in order to label an approach to audiovisual translation that stems from a critical examination of source and target scripts, aiming to: (i) make the illocutionary force accessible and acceptable to the implied, international audience; and (ii) overcome the conventional associations between dubbing and domestication, and subtitling and foreignization.

Bionote: Pietro Luigi Iaia is Senior Researcher and Lecturer of English Linguistics and Translation at the University of Salento. He holds a Ph.D. in English Linguistics applied to Translation Studies from the same University. His research interests focus on the cognitive-semantic, pragmatic and socio-cultural dimensions of multimodal translation, on ELF variations in cross-cultural audiovisual discourse, on multimodal popularization. His publications include: Analysing English as a Lingua Franca in Video Games (Peter Lang), The Dubbing Translation of Humorous Audiovisual Texts (Cambridge Scholars Publishing), and “Towards a ‘COOPING’ Model for the Investigation of Gamers’ Online Conversations in English” (in Iperstoria 17).


KOHN, Kurt

October 27th, h. 17.00

Developing ELF competence and speaker-learners' internal curriculum

Kurt Kohn, University of Tübingen


Pedagogical initiatives inspired by research on English as a lingua franca (ELF) and Global Englishes (GE) share their rejection of the monochrome standard English orientation still prevalent in most ELT contexts. Standard English, so the argument goes, does not prepare for the rich and creative variation of ELF communication. Rather, speaker-learners should be made aware of this variation and use it for guidance in their own ELF practice and competence development. Being able to participate in ELF communication is certainly a key objective for 21st century ELT. But is it equally certain that the best way to get there is by taking observed ELF communication as a model for one's own learning? Against the backdrop of a social constructivist understanding of communication and language learning, I will argue for the need to shift ELF competence development from an ‘outward’ to an ‘inward’ perspective. Regardless of the English imposed from the outside, e.g. by teachers and curricular standards, what counts in the end is what speaker-learners make of it. In this process, they are essentially guided by their personal requirements of communicative and communal success, which give rise to their ‘internal curriculum’. Based on a pedagogical lingua franca approach and empirical insights gained from intercultural virtual exchanges involving secondary school students, I will discuss how speaker-learners’ internal curriculum can be pedagogically used to reconcile ELF competence development with standard English as the language taught.

Bionote: Kurt Kohn is Professor Emeritus of English and Applied Linguistics at the University of Tübingen (Germany). His professional interests include intercultural communication, foreign language learning and teaching, English as a pedagogical lingua franca, virtual exchange and telecollaboration, and language teacher education. Publications: “A pedagogical lingua franca approach: Emancipating the foreign language learner”. LEARN Journal, 13(2), 2020: 1–14; “Foreign language teaching from a pedagogical lingua franca perspective”. In E. Grazzi (Ed.), An interdisciplinary approach to English as a lingua franca. Status Quaestionis, 19, 2020: 55–72; MY English: A social constructivist perspective on ELF. JELF, 7(1), 2018: 1–24; (with Petra Hoffstaedter) “Learner agency and non-native speaker identity in pedagogical lingua franca conversations: Insights from intercultural telecollaboration in foreign language education”. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30 (5), 2017: 351–367.



October 29th, h. 15.45

Language teacher education in an ELF aware perspective: challenges and responses in emerging communities of practice

Alessandra Cannelli, Valeria Fiasco, Lucilla Lopriore, Silvia Sperti, Roma Tre University


The emergence of ELF in a growingly multilingual society has raised several issues, among others, challenges to teachers’ attitudes and beliefs, as well as the need to revisit English language teacher education. Multilingual classrooms demand for renewed awareness of language, of language in use and for diverse forms of material development, while enhancing authenticity, ICT and mediation.  If reflective awareness of the current plurality of English is raised in teacher education courses, there are good chances that this perspective will be adopted by teachers afterwards in their classroom with their students. This may involve a meaningful shift in the language classroom where non-native teachers’ as well as their learners’ responses may offer new views and perspectives (Widdowson, 2003; Seidlhofer, 2011; Guido & Seidlhofer, 2014).  The study object of this presentation is based upon the ENRICH Project, meant to develop participants’ own understanding of the role of English as a lingua franca in multilingual classrooms through an innovative ELF-aware professional development course (Lopriore, 2017; Sifakis & Bayyurt, 2018; Sifakis, 2019).  A specific EL teachers’ and learners’ needs analysis was carried out in the 5 countries participating in the project and the results were used to plan the PD course.  Teachers’ ELF awareness was enhanced through reflective activities and in the course forum – a special community of practice - where they all had an opportunity to share views and personal beliefs about English language learning and teaching.  In order to monitor, investigate and understand the changes occurring during the course, a specific lens was used to analyze teachers’ shift in perspective through the discourse emerging in their interventions when responding to course activities, specifically those eliciting their ELF awareness.  A corpus-based discourse analysis of teachers’ language unveiled their positioning in terms of both their agency and their sense-making in a process of change. Findings will be presented and discussed. 


Guido, M.G.&Seidlhofer, B. (eds.) (2014). Perspectives on English as a Lingua Franca . TEXTUS Special Issue, 1/2014.

Lopriore, L. (2017) Voicing Beliefs and Dilemmas from WE- and ELF-Aware Reflective Teacher Education

Contexts. Teachers’ personal responses to rapidly changing multilingual contexts. Lingue& Linguaggi, 24, 7-8, pp.73-86

Seidlhofer, B.(2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Sifakis, N.C. (2019). ‘ELF awareness in English Language Teaching: Principles and processes.’ Applied Linguistics, 40/2: 288-306.

Sifakis, N.C. and Bayyurt, Y. (2018). ‘ELF-aware teaching, learning and teacher development.’ In J. Jenkins, W. Baker & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook on English as a lingua franca (pp. 456-467). London: Routledge.

Widdowson, H. G. (2003). Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



All presenters have been part of national (PRIN: ELF in domain specific contexts of intercultural communication 2017-2020) and international (ENRICH Erasmus project 2017-2020) research projects and teacher education courses on ELF held since 2018 at Roma Tre University.


Alessandra Cannelli

She taught English in Italian secondary schools for over 40 years. She is currently working as an English language teacher trainer for the Italian Ministry of Education, at Roma Tre University, in eTwinning projects and in Tesol Italy. Her main field of interest are ICTs in ELT. She was eTwinning pedagogical Advisor for Latium region from 2008 to 2019. She has been part of national and international research projects on English as a Lingua Franca at Roma Tre University.

Valeria Fiasco