The collection is placed in the southern sector of the Botanical Garden and includes over 60 taxa among species, subspecies and varieties, from dwarf bamboo to giant ones. The most represented genera are Phyllostachys, Sasa, Bambusa e Pleioblastus. The bamboos have become well acclimatized to the microclimate of the Botanical Garden, and can grow up to 30 cm daily during the spring period.
In 2019 Phyllostachys bambusoides flowered, a real event because the bamboo blooms occur with very long intervals, from 60 to over 100 years. Behind the bamboos it is possible to see the remains of a stretch of the ancient Roman Aurelian Walls (built between 271 AD and 275 AD).